This past month, Createquity continued conducting research for our follow-up to the article “Why Don’t They Come?” and our investigation of the history of change in the arts ecosystem over the past half-century.
Arts and Economic Disadvantage
This month, we looked closely at studies exploring reasons for lack of interest among people who do not attend arts events. To this end, a series of case studies from the Wallace Foundation on building new arts audiences shed light on how arts organizations have successfully attracted new audiences from groups with historically low attendance rates. Common themes in these case studies included revisiting marketing approaches to attract new audiences, finding ways to make sure that the arts content was relevant to the target audiences, and ensuring that audiences felt as though they had friends at the organization.
Additionally, we have begun to investigate why people make the choice to watch television, including whether or not people consciously choose to watch television over participating in arts activities, and why. To investigate this question, we are reading literature on how and why people make the choice to watch television.
To inform our thinking on this article, we’ve been attempting to identify interview subjects from the target population of low-SES adults who watch several hours of television a day. We have posted flyers in public libraries and on craigslist in several cities. Several people have responded to the query, and we are determining next steps for outreach.
Below are the articles and reports that we have reviewed this month:
Harlow, B. (2015). Staying Relevant in a Changing Neighborhood: How Fleisher Art Memorial is Adapting to Shifting Community Demographics. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/audience-development-for-the-arts/strategies-for-expanding-audiences/Documents/Staying-Relevant-in-a-Changing-Neighborhood-How-Fleisher-Art-Memorial-is-Adapting-to-Shifting-Community-Demographics.pdf
Harlow, B., & Cox Roman, C. (2015). Someone Who Speaks Their Language: How a Nontraditional Partner Brought New Audiences to Minnesota Opera. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/audience-development-for-the-arts/strategies-for-expanding-audiences/Documents/Someone-Who-Speaks-Their-Language.pdf
Harlow, B., & Heywood, T. (2015a). Getting Past “It’s Not For People Like Us”: Pacific Northwest Ballet Builds a Following with Teens and Young Adults. Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/audience-development-for-the-arts/strategies-for-expanding-audiences/Documents/Getting-Past-Its-Not-For-People-Like-Us.pdf
Harlow, B., & Heywood, T. (2015b). Opening New Doors: Hands-on Participation Brings a New Audience to a Clay Studio. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/audience-development-for-the-arts/strategies-for-expanding-audiences/Documents/Opening-New-Doors-Hands-On-Participation-Brings-a-New-Audience-to-The-Clay-Studio.pdf
Lee, B., & Lee, R. S. (1995). How and Why People Watch TV: Implications for the Future of Interactive Television: Implications for the Future of Interactive Television. Journal of Advertising Research, 35(6). Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/242362719_How_and_why_people_watch_TV_Implications_for_the_future_of_interactive_television
Rosenstein, C. (2005). Diversity and Participation in the Arts: Insights from the Bay Area. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/311252-Diversity-and-Participation-in-the-Arts.PDF
Stevens, L. K. (1996). Motivating opera attendance : comparative qualitative research in 10 North American cities, 1996. Washington, D.C.: ArtsMarket Consulting. Retrieved from http://www.worldcat.org/title/motivating-opera-attendance-comparative-qualitative-research-in-10-north-american-cities-1996/oclc/35633527
History of Change in the Arts Ecosystem
We launched into bibliographic research in all three of our focus areas this month. The process is still very much underway (particularly in the “Expansion of the Definition of Art” and the “Technology” areas) and we appreciate any additional suggestions that Createquity Insider readers might want to add to our list. Here’s what we’ve dug up so far (grouped by content area):
Change Area 1: Expansion of the nonprofit arts infrastructure as seen in the proliferation of nonprofit arts organizations, government arts agencies, and philanthropic support, as well as growth in the number of arts administrators
Abramson, Alan J. “Nonprofit Sector and the New Federal Budget, The.” Text, January 1, 1986. http://webarchive.urban.org/publications/201452.html.
Burlingame, Dwight. Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2004.
Chartrand, Harry Hillman. “Toward an American Arts Industry.” The Public Life of the Arts in America, 2000, 22–49.
Cherbo, Joni Maya, and Margaret Jane Wyszomirski. The Public Life of the Arts in America. Rutgers University Press, 2000.
Constantino, Tracie. “The Impact of Philanthropy on Arts Education Policy.” Arts Education Policy Review 105, no. 1 (September 1, 2003): 25–32. doi:10.1080/10632910309600749.
“Cultural Economics: The Arts, the Heritage and the Media Industries. Volume 2.,” 1997, xi + 769 pp.
Curti, Merle. “The History of American Philanthropy as a Field of Research.” The American Historical Review, 1957, 352–63.
Dewey, Patricia. “From Arts Management to Cultural Administration.” International Journal of Arts Management 6 (2004): 13–23.
DiMaggio, Paul J., and Helmut K. Anheier. “The Sociology of Nonprofit Organizations and Sectors.” Annual Review of Sociology 16 (January 1, 1990): 137–59.
Gray, Charles M., and James Heilbrun. “Economics of the Nonprofit Arts.” The Public Life of the Arts in America, 2000, 202.
Hall, Peter Dobkin. “A Historical Overview of Philanthropy, Voluntary Associations, and Nonprofit Organizations in the United States, 1600–2000.” The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook 2 (2006): 32–65.
———. “Historical Perspectives on Nonprofit Organizations in the United States.” The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management 2 (2005): 3–38.
———. “ Inventing the Nonprofit Sector” and Other Essays on Philanthropy, Voluntarism, and Nonprofit Organizations. JHU Press, 2001. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=T36LiAL1bGAC&oi=fnd&pg=PP7&dq=%22nonprofit+organizations%22+infrastructure+history&ots=NgdmM_rWvX&sig=iy9vneIATjEF_vbG13ocSAEJAhY.
Hammack, David C. “Nonprofit Organizations in American History Research Opportunities and Sources.” American Behavioral Scientist 45, no. 11 (July 1, 2002): 1638–74. doi:10.1177/0002764202045011004.
Hansmann, Henry. “Nonprofit Enterprise in the Performing Arts.” The Bell Journal of Economics 12, no. 2 (October 1, 1981): 341–61. doi:10.2307/3003560.
Hutchens, James, and Vivian Zöue. “Curricular Considerations in Arts Administration: A Comparison of Views from the Field.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 15, no. 2 (June 1, 1985): 7–22. doi:10.1080/07335113.1985.9942154.
Hwang, Hokyu, and Walter W. Powell. “The Rationalization of Charity: The Influences of Professionalism in the Nonprofit Sector.” Administrative Science Quarterly 54, no. 2 (June 1, 2009): 268–98. doi:10.2189/asqu.2009.54.2.268.
Ivey, Bill. “America Needs a New System for Supporting the Arts.” Chronicle of Higher Education 51, no. 22 (2005): B6–9.
Jeffri, Joan. “Philanthropy and the American Artist: A Historical Overview.” The European Journal of Cultural Policy 3, no. 2 (April 1, 1997): 207–33. doi:10.1080/10286639709358046.
Markusen, Ann, Sam Gilmore, Amanda Johnson, Titus Levi, and Andrea Martinez. “Crossover: How Artists Build Careers across Commercial, Nonprofit, and Community Work,” 2006. http://works.bepress.com.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/amanda_johnson1/3/.
McCarthy, Kathleen D. “American Cultural Philanthropy: Past, Present, and Future.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 471 (January 1, 1984): 13–26.
McCarthy, Kevin F., Elizabeth Heneghan Ondaatje, and Jennifer L. Novak. Arts and Culture in the Metropolis. Rand Corporation, 2007. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG477.
Mulcahy, Kevin V. “The State Arts Agency: An Overview of Cultural Federalism in the United States.” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 32, no. 1 (2002): 67–80.
Murphy, Thomas P. “Internships and the Professionalization of Arts Administration.” Performing Arts Review 7, no. 3 (July 1, 1977): 328–55. doi:10.1080/00315249.1977.9943419.
O’Neill, Michael. Nonprofit Nation: A New Look at the Third America. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Powell, Walter W., and Richard Steinberg. The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook. Yale University Press, 2006.
Salamon, Lester M. “The Nonprofit Sector at a Crossroads: The Case of America.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 10, no. 1 (March 1999): 5–23. doi:10.1023/A:1021435602742.
Toepler, Stefan, and Annette Zimmer. “The State and the Non‐profit Sector in the Provision of Arts and Culture: The Cases of Germany and the United States.” The European Journal of Cultural Policy 3, no. 2 (April 1, 1997): 289–304. doi:10.1080/10286639709358050.
Urice, John K. “The Future of the State Arts Agency Movement in the 1990s: Decline and Effect.” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 22, no. 1 (March 1, 1992): 19–32. doi:10.1080/10632921.1992.9944392.
Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. “Philanthropy, the Arts, and Public Policy.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 16, no. 4 (January 1, 1987): 5–29. doi:10.1080/07335113.1987.9943084.
Change Area 2: Broadening of the definition of “art” in the nonprofit arts establishment to be more inclusive of non-European cultural traditions, popular culture, and new artistic disciplines
Banks, Mark, David Calvey, Julia Owen, and David Russell. “Where the Art Is: Defining and Managing Creativity in New Media SMEs.” Creativity and Innovation Management 11, no. 4 (2002): 255–64.
Crowther, Paul. “Defining Art, Creating the Canon: Artistic Value in an Era of Doubt,” 2007. http://philpapers.org/rec/
Dewey, John. Art as Experience. Penguin, 2005. http://books.google.com/books?
Dutton, Denis. The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, & Human Evolution. Oxford University Press, USA, 2009.http://books.google.com/books?
Huber, Robert. “Defining Sculpture: Beyond the Expanded Field.” International Journal of the Arts in Society 6, no. 5 (2012). http://ija.cgpublisher.com/
Kim, Ji-Hoon. “Animating the Photographic Trace, Intersecting Phantoms with Phantasms: Contemporary Media Arts, Digital Moving Pictures, and the Documentary’s’ Expanded Field’.” Animation, 2011, 1746847711417780.
Lauter, Estella. “Re-Enfranchising Art: Feminist Interventions in the Theory of Art.” Hypatia 5, no. 2 (June 1, 1990): 91–106. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1990.
Merritt, Davis. “Public Journalism-Defining a Democratic Art.” Media Studies Journal 9, no. 3 (1995): 125–32.
Rendell, Clare. “Sonia Delaunay and the Expanding Definition of Art.” Woman’s Art Journal, 1983, 35–38.
Rowe, Keri. “Elevating the Other: A Theoretical Approach to Alexander McQueen.” All Theses and Dissertations, March 1, 2015. http://scholarsarchive.byu.
Truxes, Anna. “The Art World Expanded.” The University of Utah, 2008. http://scholar.google.com/
Wieand, Jeffrey. “Defining Art and Artifacts.” Philosophical Studies 38, no. 4 (1980): 385–89.
Change Area 3: New technologies that have made it cheaper and easier to produce, distribute, and access cultural products
Baek, Young Min. “Relationship Between Cultural Distance and Cross-Cultural Music Video Consumption on YouTube.” Social Science Computer Review, December 9, 2014, 0894439314562184. doi:10.1177/0894439314562184.
Burgess, Jean, and Joshua Green. YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
Cayari, Christopher. “Cayari, C. (2011). The YouTube Effect: How YouTube Has Provided New Ways to Consume, Create, and Share Music. , 12(6). Retrieved [date] From.” International Journal of Education & the Arts 12, no. 6 (2011). http://www.ijea.org/v12n6/.
Crow, Bill. “Musical Creativity and the New Technology.” Music Education Research 8, no. 1 (March 1, 2006): 121–30. doi:10.1080/14613800600581659.
Duncum, Paul. “Prosumers in a Peer-to-Peer Participatory Culture.” The International Journal of Arts Education 9, no. 2 (2011): 24–39.
Future of Music Coalition. “The Data Journalism That Wasn’t | Future of Music Coalition,” August 21, 2015. http://www.futureofmusic.org/blog/2015/08/21/data-journalism-wasnt.
Gauntlett, David. Making Is Connecting: The Social Meaning of Creativity, from DIY and Knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
Gouzouasis, Peter. “Fluency in General Music and Arts Technologies: Is the Future of Music a Garage Band Mentality?” Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education 4, no. 2 (September 2005).
Hillier, Ashleigh, Gena Greher, Nataliya Poto, and Margaret Dougherty. “Positive Outcomes Following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum.” Psychology of Music 40, no. 2 (March 1, 2012): 201–15. doi:10.1177/0305735610386837.
Johnson, Steven. “Can Data Capture the True Health of the Creative Economy?” The New York Times, August 24, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/24/magazine/can-data-capture-the-true-health-of-the-creative-economy.html?_r=0.
Khan, M. Laeeq. “Understanding Motives for User Consumption and Participation on YouTube: A Uses and Gratifications Perspective,” 2013. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/249643625.
Lange, Patricia G. “Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13, no. 1 (October 1, 2007): 361–80. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00400.x.
Loveless, Avril. “Literature Review in Creativity, New Technologies and Learning,” 2002. https://telearn.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190439/document.
Manovich, Lev. “The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production?” Critical Inquiry 35, no. 2 (January 1, 2009): 319–31. doi:10.1086/596645.
Miller, Andrew D., and W. Keith Edwards. “Give and Take: A Study of Consumer Photo-Sharing Culture and Practice.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 347–56. CHI ’07. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007. doi:10.1145/1240624.1240682.
Morris, Jeremy Wade. “DEVELOPMENTS IN MUSIC TECHNOLOGY: HYBRID ACTIVITY IN POPULAR MUSIC.” eTopia 0, no. 0 (March 20, 2005). http://etopia.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/etopia/article/view/36747.
Preece, Stephen B., and Jennifer Wiggins Johnson. “Web Strategies and the Performing Arts: A Solution to Difficult Brands.” International Journal of Arts Management 14, no. 1 (Fall 2011): 19–31.
Tripp, Stephanie. “From TVTV to YouTube: A Genealogy of Participatory Practices in Video.” Journal of Film and Video 64, no. 1–2 (May 15, 2012): 5–16. doi:10.5406/jfilmvideo.64.1-2.0005.
Väkevä, Lauri. “Garage Band or GarageBand®? Remixing Musical Futures.” British Journal of Music Education 27, no. Special Issue 01 (March 2010): 59–70. doi:10.1017/S0265051709990209.
Wise, Stuart, Janinka Greenwood, and Niki Davis. “Teachers’ Use of Digital Technology in Secondary Music Education: Illustrations of Changing Classrooms.” British Journal of Music Education 28, no. 02 (July 2011): 117–34. doi:10.1017/S0265051711000039.
Wolfe, Paula. “A Studio of One’s Own: Music Production, Technology and Gender.” Journal on the Art of Record Production, no. 7 (November 2012). http://arpjournal.com/a-studio-of-one%E2%80%99s-own-music-production-technology-and-gender/.